We report a survey of four viruses (beet western yellows luteovirus (BWYV), cauliflower mosaic caulimovirus (CaMV), turnip mosaic potyvirus (TuMV), turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus (TYMV)) in five natural populations of Brassica oleracea in Dorset (UK). All four viruses were common; 43% of plants were infected with BWYV, 60%, with CaMV, 4300 with TuMV and 1800 with TYMV. For each virus there were significant differences in the proportion of infected plants among populations, which were not completely explained by differences in the age of plants. Multiple virus infections were prevalent, with 54% of plants having two or more virus types. There were statistically significant associations between pairs of viruses. The CaMV was positively associated with the other three viruses, and BWYV was also positively associated with TuMV. There was no detectable association between BWYV and TYMV, whereas TuMV and TYMV were negatively associated. We suggest these associations result from BWYV, CaMV and TuMV having aphid vectors in common, as aphids are attracted to plants that already hal-e a virus infection. Infected plants were distributed randomly or were very weakly aggregated within populations. The implications of widespread multiple virus infections in natural plant populations are discussed with respect to the release of transgenic plants expressing virus-derived genes.