Soil profiles, first sampled between 1963 and 1973, were resampled in 1991 in an upland area with modertely high deposition of pollutants. One hundred horizons from 32 profiles, representing 10 different soil subgroups were analysed for pH and seven variables related to pH, using the same laboratory methods on both sampling occasions. To allow comparisons to be made with results obtained with these old methods, analysis of the 1991 samples was repeated for some determinands using the methods currently used in the analytical laboratory. Organic and A horizons show a consistent increase in acidity between samplings. Although brown soils and lithomorphic soils have increased in acidity throughout their depth, gleys and podzols have decreased in acidity at depth, probably because of poor water transmission downwards into these horizons. Correlations with other determinands suggest that the dominant process in the soils is leaching of basic cations and their replacement on exchange sites by protons and probably aluminium ions. A cause of the increase in soil acidity is likely to be the deposition of atmospherically transported pollutants.